Introduction 



dhatu ek khanig padhart hai,jo prakrit me ayasko(ORES) ke roop me prapt hota hai.ayasko se dhatuyen prapt karne ke liye unhe bibhinnya prakramo se gujrna padta hai, uske antargat ayask se metallic tatha non metallic padhart prathak ho jate hai, fir dhatuyo ko dhal ker upyogi swaroop pradan kiya jata hai. aur non metallic padharto ko by product ke roop me prayog kiya jata hai,
  Dhatuyon me bahut prakaar ke gud hote hai. gudo ke aadhar per dhatuo ka prayog bibhinna engineering prayojno ke liye kiya jata hai,
Jaise : bhavan nirmad karya ,krishi yantra , bahan , machine , wauyaan, samudri jahaj, pullo ke dhache , eletrical work , ayr tools treker,etc.
          Silpkaar tatha technician hamesha yah janne ke liye utsuk rahte hai ki amuk bastu ke nirmad me kon si dhatu ka prayog kiya jaye, isliye dhatuo per karya karne waale in technician ko dhatuo ke bishay me zaan dena mahtoya poorn hai 

Dhatuye do prakaar ki hoti hai,
1. Ferrous metals
2. Non-Ferrous metals
1. Ferous metals jin dhatuo me main ansh loha hota hai unhe ferrous metals kahte hai,
    Jaise . pig iron, cast iron , wrought iron , steel, etc.
2. Non-Ferrous metals jin dhatuo me lohe ki matra nahi hota hai , tatha main ansh anya dhatuo ka hota hai .  use Non-Ferrous metals kahte hai,

Alloys Metals
          do ya do se adhik elements ke alloy ko mishra dhatu kahte hai,mishra dhatu ka ek elements jaroor dhatu hota haitatha anya elements metalic ya non-metalic elements hota hai,
Jaise: uchhgati spat bedag espat , pital, tamba , etc.

Properties of metals..
  1. Physical properties (भौतिक गुण )
  2. Mechanical properties(यांत्रिकगुण )
1. Physical properties : Dhatuo me prakrit roop me paye jaane wale gud bhoutik gud kahlate hai,yah kai prakaar ke hote hai.
  1. Colour(रंग)
  2. Internal  Struchur (आंतरिक Struchur)
  3.  Fusibillity
  4. Conductivity
  5. Magnetism

2. Mechanical properties : Dhatuo ko bhoutik gudo ko yadi annya prakaar ke gudo me badla jaye to is paribartan ko yantrick gud kahte hai
yantrick gud(Mechanical properties) kai prakaar ke hote hai,
  1. Strength
  2. Elasticity
  3. Plasticity
  4. Ductility 
  5. Brittleness
  6. Malleabillty
  7. Toughness
  8. Hardness
  9. Tenacity
  10. Compressibility
  11. Machinability



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